面向世界科技前沿,面向国家重大需求,面向国民经济主战场,率先实现科学技术跨越发展,率先建成国家创新人才高地,率先建成国家高水平科技智库,率先建设国际一流科研机构。

——中国科学院办院方针

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Ukraine calls for 'immediate ceasefire' as talks with Russia open******

Reuters

Russian and Ukrainian officials take part in the talks in Gomel, Belarus, on Monday.

Russia and Ukraine met yesterday for their first talks since the outbreak of war last week, with Kiev demanding an "immediate ceasefire" as the number of refugees fleeing the country hit more than 500,000.

As the delegations arrived for talks on the border between Belarus and Ukraine on day five of Moscow's attack, the Ukrainian presidency demanded the ceasefire "and the withdrawal of troops."

"I do not really believe in the outcome of this meeting, but let them try," Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky has said.

Severe financial sanctions imposed by the West on Moscow showed their impact on financial markets yesterday morning, with the Russian rouble collapsing to a record low and the Russian central bank more than doubling interest rates to 20 percent.

The sanctions targeting the Russian financial sector are intended to change the calculus of Kremlin leader Vladimir Putin, but on the ground the roughly 100,000 Russian troops thought to be inside Ukraine continued their move from the north, east and south.

Western defense officials and the Kiev government say battling Ukrainian troops have kept the country's major cities out of Russian hands despite incursions in the capital Kiev and the second largest city, Kharkiv, over the weekend.

"The Russian occupiers have reduced the pace of the offensive," the general staff of the Ukrainian armed forces said yesterday, again claiming that Moscow had suffered "heavy losses."

The small southern city of Berdyansk has been occupied by Russian soldiers, however, Ukrainian officials said.

In the capital yesterday, after a relatively calm evening, people rushed out to buy food after the lifting of a strict blanket curfew imposed on Saturday, with local forces given shoot-on-sight orders over the weekend.

Amid reports of further Russian troop movements towards Kiev, Moscow said it had now "gained air superiority over the entire territory of Ukraine," while accusing Ukrainian troops of using civilians as human shields.

The UN's refugee agency UNHCR said over half a million people have fled Ukraine since the attack on Thursday.

"More than 500,000 refugees have now fled from Ukraine to neighboring countries," United Nations refugee chief Filippo Grandi said in a tweet.

The grim figure came as talks got under way at the Belarus-Ukraine border yesterday that included Ukraine's defense minister and officials from the two countries.

Kiev had been initially reluctant to send a delegation to Belarus, given the country's role in facilitating Russia's attack on Ukraine by hosting troops and weaponry used in the invasion.

"We definitely have an interest in reaching some agreements as soon as possible," Vladimir Medinsky, an aide to Putin who has traveled to Belarus for the talks, said in televised remarks.

Zelensky meanwhile issued another video address, wearing his now trademark green khaki sweatshirt, calling on the European Union to agree to "the immediate accession of Ukraine via a new special procedure."

The head of the European Commission, Ursula von der Leyen, gave her support on Sunday in an interview with the Euronews channel, but without specifying a timeframe. "They are one of us and we want them in," she said.

The EU said it would provide 450 million euros (US$500 million) for Ukraine to buy arms, including Russian-made fighter jets that Ukrainian pilots could operate.

It also announced restrictions on Kremlin-run media outlets RT and Sputnik.

Elsewhere, Russia said yesterday it was banning flights by airlines from 36 countries, including Britain and Germany, after many have barred Russian planes.

中国军舰放缓下饺子 这个问题急待解决 不然将出现甜蜜的尴尬******

原标题:中国军舰放缓下饺子 这个问题急待解决 不然将出现甜蜜的尴尬

近年来,中国的造舰速度堪称恐怖,几年之间就服役了50多艘056轻型护卫舰、29艘054A导弹护卫舰、10艘052D导弹驱逐舰、1艘055万吨大驱,外加1艘国产航母。中国海军的舰艇建造之快、数量之多可谓是冷战结束后当之无愧的世界第一。

但进入2019年后,海军舰艇下水、服役的消息明显少于往年同期,全然没了之前那股"下饺子"的热闹劲,对此,有西方军事评论员认为,中国造舰速度下降是因为军费不足,难以支撑海军的进一步扩张,然而我国2019年的国防预算为1776亿美元,相比去年增长7.5%,完全不存在没钱造舰的情况,造舰速度之所以下降,主要是为了防止海军一口吃成个大胖子,最终出现消化不良的情况。

目前,人民海军可以说是面临着幸福的烦恼,新军舰、大军舰比10年前多了太多,可是却没有足够多的官兵来操纵这些新服役的战舰,为了填补人员缺口,海军一方面从驱逐舰支队这样的主力部队抽调人手,但在新舰形成战斗力之前,这样无疑会削弱老部队的战斗力;另一方面,原本护卫舰乃至导弹艇上的官兵也被"赶"上了更大的舰船服役,从老旧落后的舰艇来到现代化的军舰上服役,这部分官兵必然需要通过长时间的磨合训练才能真正掌握手中的武器。简而言之,"下饺子"使得海军装备的先进程度和数量大大提升了,但在战斗力质量的问题上,海军最近确实面临着不小的困难,人员和装备的磨合需要大量时间,如果再维持之前的"下饺子"速度,将对海军正常的战斗力生成造成负面影响。

由于历史欠账,人民海军内长期装备着大量落后陈旧的舰艇,为了应对现代海战的挑战,自然需要大规模换装,"下饺子"初期,"饿"了几十年的海军部队能够很容易地消化新服役的舰船,但当新舰的数量达到一定规模后,部队也出现了消化不良的问题。

至于为什么不把海军整个换新,主要还是出于维持海军现有战斗力和节约成本的考虑,瞬间的换血会使人民海军缺乏人与装备的磨合,战斗力在一定时期内会不升反降。再者,有些服役了一二十年的舰艇与054A、052D比起来当然是旧了些,但它们的服役周期要么还未过半,要么还是所在部队的主力舰只,过早退役实在是一种浪费。

过去几年我们下的饺子里056、054A这样的中轻型护卫占了新舰的大部分,这也与我国近海防御部队舰船老化落后、急需补充有关,造完这些舰船后,我军"下饺子"的速度自然就慢了下来,毕竟后面配套航母战斗群的远洋舰船的建设才是真正难啃的骨头。

目前,我国首艘国产航母已经进行了多次海试,距离正式服役已经为时不远,新航母的建造更是有条不紊地进行着。作为未来航母战斗群的防空核心,第七艘055大驱也已经在船厂露面,加长款052D同样开始下水,这些大舰才是人民海军走向深蓝的本钱,其建造难度和重要性远非中小型舰艇可比。最近中国虽然没有服役多少新舰,但服役的无一不是精品,这也意味着中国海军的建设迈上了一个全新的台阶,在满足了基本的数量需求后,人民海军对质的要求越来越高。(利刃/KYJ)

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西安1314套公租房逐渐分配 符合条件市民可报考******

12月9日,西安市城建局公布,现阶段西安市向阳沟公共租赁房新项目1-3号楼,总共1314套公共租赁房已做到分派搬入标准。西安市保障房管理处授权委托市安居集团于最近对以上楼盘开展分派,满足条件的群众可报名。

分配对象:本次分配对象为截止到2019年12月31日以前,通过二级审核、2次公示公告、六部门联审,获得公共租赁住房实体配租资质(不限房租规范)且现阶段依然合乎实体配租情况的轮侯家庭。

报名截止时间:请合乎本次分配对象标准且有意愿报名此项目地轮侯家庭于12月21日前,登陆西安市保障房在网上综合服务平台进行在网上报名工作中。

报名注意事项:1.报名信息内容填好中的别的表明,仅能填好以下几点:(1)申请办理家庭组员中有在服役期内立功受奖二等功、临战立功受奖三等功及以上的;

(2)申请办理家庭组员中有得到省级及地市级以上助人为乐嘉奖、独特功绩奖赏、全国劳模头衔的;

(3)享受西安市城六区城区低保政策和特困户确保的家庭;

(4)独居老人或申请办理家庭组员中有归属于二级以上残废、关键失独家庭的。

2.如填好以上內容的家庭,需要在报名完毕以前(即2021年12月22日以前)向小区提交有关证明文件,如未按规定時间或是法律规定方式递交有关证明文件的,视作失效。

3.报名顺序与分派次序不相干。

4.每一个轮侯家庭只有参加一个安置房新项目的报名。

5.依照《西安市租用型安置房建设管理方法实施细则(实施)》的规定,摇号申请优先选择确保享受公共租赁住房最少房租规范(2.89元/月·总建筑面积平米)家庭的住宅分派;享受公租住房租金规范家庭将在剩下楼盘中开展摇号申请分派。假如享受公共租赁住房最少房租规范的家庭报名总数超过该住宅小区所供应的楼盘总数,则报名该住宅小区的享受公租住房租金规范家庭将不参加该住宅小区的摇号申请。

新项目详细地址:灞桥区五星红旗街道办事处向阳沟村,水安路东侧,向阳沟村现况居民点南面,向阳沟村整体规划居民点往西。楼盘套数及房型:一室一厅,总建筑面积45平米上下,套数750套;两房两厅,总建筑面积区段为53至70平米,套数564套。供暖方法为壁挂炉。

热线电话:西安市安居集团电話:88070095;西安市保障房管理处电話:87619419。


来源于:三秦都市报。

编缉:杨蓓蕾。

物种迅速进化很有可能没啥用,反倒促使他们更早灭绝******

大家一般觉得,在生物多元性的进化全过程中,很多大的进化支系是根据更快的进化发生的,他们有着更好的生物多元性;而较小的支系则经历了更迟缓的进化,他们的生物多元性更低。殊不知一项新的研究发现:进化得越来越快,绝种得也越来越快。

Rapidly evolving species more likely to go extinct, study suggests。

Researchers at the University of Bristol have found that fast evolution can lead to nowhere.。

美国布里斯托高校的科学研究工作人员最新发现,物种迅速进化很有可能促进他们更早绝种。

In a new study of lizards and their relatives, Dr Jorge Herrera-Flores of Bristol's School of Earth Sciences and colleagues have discovered that 'slow and steady wins the race'.。

布里斯托高校地球上研究院的Jorge Herrera-Flores博士以及朋友,在一项对于蛇蜥以及血亲物种的分析中发觉,“迟缓而平稳”的进化方式,使他们获得了地球上物种“进化比赛”。

The team studied lizards, snakes and their relatives, a group called the Lepidosauria. Today there are more than 10,000 species of lepidosaurs, and much of their recent success is a result of fast evolution in favourable circumstances. But this was not always the case.。

该学习工作组的研究对象是有鳞亚纲物种,包含:蛇蜥,蛇和别的血亲物种。现如今地球上有鳞亚纲物种总数做到1万多种,大家觉得该类群的取得成功进化非常大水平上是在有益地理环境下迅速进化产生的,但状况并不是一直这般。

Mr Herrera-Flores explained: "Lepidosaurs originated 250 million years ago in the early Mesozoic Era, and they split into two major groups, the squamates on the one hand, leading to modern lizards and snakes, and the rhynchocephalians on the other, represented today by a single species, the tuatara of New Zealand. We expected to find slow evolution in rhynchocephalians, and fast evolution in squamates. But we found the opposite."。

Herrera-Flores博士表述说:“有鳞亚纲物种始于2.5亿光年前三叠纪初期,他们分成两大支系,一支是有鳞类生物,慢慢演化进化成当代蛇蜥和蛇,另一支是喙头目生物,现如今仅存有单一物种——新加坡大蜥蜴。一般我们觉得喙头目生物是迟缓进化而致,有鳞类生物理应发生了迅速进化,但事实上,回答恰好反过来。”。

"We looked at the rate of change in body size among these early reptiles," said Dr Tom Stubbs, a collaborator. "We found that some groups of squamates evolved fast in the Mesozoic, especially those with specialised lifestyles like the marine mosasaurs. But rhynchocephalians were much more consistently fast-evolving."。

此项科学研究的合作方Tom Stubbs 博士说:“在科学研究了这种初期脊椎动物的身型转变速率,发觉一些有鳞类生物在三叠纪阶段进化速率迅速,尤其是这些拥有独特生活习惯的非常巨怪,比如:日常生活在深海中的沧龙。但意想不到的是,喙头目生物持续保持迅速的进化速率。”。

图中是侏罗纪晚期的蛇颈龙,它们生活在大约1.5亿年前,骨骼化石挖掘于德国南部,它是一种非凡的长体游泳喙头目生物。  图上是侏罗纪时代末期的蛇颈龙,他们生话在大概1.5亿光年前,人体骨骼动物化石发掘于法国南边,它是一种不凡的长体游水喙头目生物。

"In fact, their average rates of evolution were significantly faster than those for squamates, about twice the background rate of evolution, and we really did not expect this," said Dr Armin Elsler, another collaborator. "In the later part of the Mesozoic all the modern groups of lizards and snakes originated and began to diversify, living side-by-side with the dinosaurs, but probably not engaging with them ecologically. These early lizards were feeding on bugs, worms, and plants, but they were mainly quite small."。

“实际上,喙头目生物的均值进化速率明显超出有鳞类生物,大概是后面一种进化速率的二倍,这也是先前沒有想到的。”该科学研究的另一位合作方Armin Elsler博士说,“在三叠纪中后期,全部当代蛇蜥和蛇种都出現了,并逐渐房屋朝向多元化发展趋势,他们与霸王龙物种日常生活在一起,但很有可能在绿色生态上不容易与霸王龙产生触碰。这种远古蜥蜴以小虫子,蜘蛛和绿色植物为食,他们的身型都并不大。”。

Prof Mike Benton added: "'After the extinction of the dinosaurs, 66 million years ago, at the end of the Mesozoic, the rhynchocephalians and squamates suffered a lot, but the squamates bounced back. But for most of the Mesozoic, the rhynchocephalians were the innovators and the fast evolvers. They tailed off quite severely well before the end of the Mesozoic, and the whole dynamic changed after that."。

Mike Benton 专家教授填补道:“6600百万年三叠纪后期,恐龙的灭绝以后喙头目生物和有鳞类生物遭到了非常大严厉打击,但有鳞类生物物种迅速反跳。但就三叠纪大部分物种来讲,喙头目生物是进化颠覆性创新,处在较迅速进化情况,但在三叠纪后期该种群数量就快速走入没落,在哪以后,全部动态性就发生了转变。”。

This work confirms a challenging proposal made by the famous palaeontologist George Gaylord Simpson in his 1944 book Tempo and Mode in Evolution. He looked at the fundamental patterns of evolution in a framework of Darwinian evolution and observed that many fast-evolving species belonged to unstable groups, which were potentially adapting to rapidly changing environments.。

此项全新科学研究证明了知名的古生物学者乔冶·盖洛德·辛普森在1944年出版发行的《进化的节奏感和方式》一书里明确提出的趣味性提议。他在爱因斯坦进化论的理论框架下科学研究了物种进化的基本原则,并了解到很多迅速进化的物种归属于不稳定人群,他们能够融入迅速改变的地理环境。

蜥蜴和蛇的进化速度(蓝线)在大约2亿年的时间里远低于喙头目生物(绿线),而且它们只是在最近5000万年左右才发生了逆转。  蛇蜥和蛇的进化速率(绿线)在大概2年前的時间里远小于喙头目生物(蓝线),并且他们仅仅在近期5000萬年上下才发生了反转。

Prof Benton continued: "Slow and steady wins the race. In the classic Aesop's fable, the speedy hare loses the race, whereas the slow-moving tortoise crosses the finishing line first. Since the days of Darwin, biologists have debated whether evolution is more like the hare or the tortoise. Is it the case that big groups of many species are the result of fast evolution over a short time or slow evolution over a long time?

Benton专家教授再次讲到:“脚踏实地才可以赢得比赛。在传统的寓言故事中,跑的快的小兔子最后却输掉赛事,而跑得慢的小乌龟第一个冲过去了终点。从爱因斯坦时期逐渐,生物学者们就一直在争执最好物种进化更像小兔子或是小乌龟。有着多物种支系的物种是短期内内迅速进化的結果,或是长期迟缓进化的結果?”。

"In some cases, they can stabilise and survive well, but in many cases the species go extinct as fast as new ones emerge, and they can go extinct, just like the napping hare. On the other hand, Simpson predicted that slowly evolving species might also be slow to go extinct, and could in the end be successful in the longer term, just like the slow-moving but persistent tortoise in the fable."。

“在某种状况下,很多物种能平稳地进化发展趋势,非常好地存活出来。但在大部分状况下,物种绝种速率和新物种创造速率基本上是一样快,如同小兔子打盹的時间那麼“短暂性”。辛普森曾推测称,进化迟缓的物种很有可能也会迟缓地迈向绝种,并可以在很长一段时间内比迅速进化的物种更加取得成功,如同寓意故事中迟缓挪动但锲而不舍的小乌龟一样。”。

7月1日起,北京公积金账户余额可直接用来还贷款了!

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